BBC曝光苹果“血汗工厂”,这一次惹祸的不是富士康

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BBC关于苹果供应链厂商和硕在上海一家代工厂的报道,再一次将苹果与血汗工厂联系了起来。

除了富士康,从华硕分拆出来的和硕也在承接苹果产品的代工,比如iPhone 5c、iPad mini等。在BBC的视频报道中,我们看到和硕上海这家代工厂的工人一天要工作16个小时,并且有的工人连续工作18天后申请调休被拒绝。而且,一个卧底记者讲述了自己在和硕的住宿环境,一间宿舍需要和11个人共用。

这样的场景描述,不得不让人想起三年前纽约时报两个整版深度报道。那份关于苹果血汗工厂的报道,让苹果面临前所未有的舆论压力。在外界压力下,苹果也首次公布了全部主要供应商的名单。

而对于这从BBC长达一个小时的视频报道,苹果运营副总裁Jeff Williams在一封内部邮件中写道,苹果承认供应链所面临的挑战,也在致力于让生产苹果产品的工人也能够体面地工作和生活,获得应得的尊严。但是对于BBC所暗示的——苹果将打破对供应链工人的承诺,苹果CEO蒂姆·库克和他自己都很生气。他提到,没有什么比这个指控更偏离事实,对消费者也会产生了误导。

Jeff在邮件中还提到,之前已经给予BBC苹果在提高代工厂员工生存状况的材料和事实,但遗憾的是,这与BBC这个节目所要讲的主题完全背离。

那么,Jeff手上有哪些苹果一直致力于改善代工厂工人生存状况的证据,或者说,苹果究竟为一线的产线工人做了什么呢?

首先,已经有超过1400名苹果员工被驻派到中国的各个代工厂,他们职位都是工程师或者经理,被派去监控一线的生产环境,在代工厂出现安全风险和员工虐待时,他们会站出来与工厂管理层沟通。

在2012年纽约时报的文章出来后,库克给公司全体员工发邮件表示,苹果将加强审计工作。在今年,苹果的供应商责任团队已经完成630次深入供应链的审计,在避开工厂经理的情况下,使用当地语言与工人进行面对面聊天。而且,每次审计,无论是管理经验多么丰富的工厂,都会出现问题。Jeff谈到,苹果发现问题后,然后回去改善这个问题。

在他看来,批评的人总是把他们发现的问题当做证据,以试图证明苹果所做的改善是无效的。

工作时长是“血汗工厂”的一大特征。从苹果给出的官方文档显示,在电子行业,每周工作时间超过60个小时是惯例。苹果也给各个代工厂规定,除非特殊情况,每周的工作时间限定为最长 60 小时,所有超时工作必须出于完全自愿。

为了这个规定得到很好地执行,苹果在 2011 年启动了一项计划,对供应链中超过 100 万名工人的每周工作时间进行追踪。2013年的结果显示,苹果供应商在所有工作周达到了 95% 的平均合规比例,所有工人的每周平均工作时间低于 50 小时。所跟踪的所有员工中,超过 97% 的工作周符合我们至少每 7 天休 1 天的规定。

在这里我不得不穿插另一条新闻。今年10月份,《证券日报》报道,富士康重庆厂区爆发了一场劳资纠纷。大量工人在工业园区大门前,打着“我们不做机器人,我们要吃饭养家”的红色标语。这些工人上周三开始罢工,主要因为惠普订单数量减少后,富士康减少了工人的加班时间。

有时候,正义感很容易把人给绑架。

 

英文好的朋友建议读一下苹果邮件全文:

UK Team,

As you know, Apple is dedicated to the advancement of human rights and equality around the world. We are honest about the challenges we face and we work hard to make sure that people who make our products are treated with the dignity and respect they deserve.

Last night, the BBC’s Panorama program called those values into question. Like many of you, Tim and I were deeply offended by the suggestion that Apple would break a promise to the workers in our supply chain or mislead our customers in any way.

I’d like to give you facts and perspective, all of which we shared with the BBC in advance, but were clearly missing from their program.

Panorama showed some of the shocking conditions around tin mining in Indonesia. Apple has publicly stated that tin from Indonesia ends up in our products, and some of that tin likely comes from illegal mines. Here are the facts:

Tens of thousands of artisanal miners are selling tin through many middlemen to the smelters who supply to component suppliers who sell to the world. The government is not addressing the issue, and there is widespread corruption in the undeveloped supply chain. Our team visited the same parts of Indonesia visited by the BBC, and of course we are appalled by what’s going on there.

Apple has two choices: We could make sure all of our suppliers buy tin from smelters outside of Indonesia, which would probably be the easiest thing for us to do and would certainly shield us from criticism. But it would be the lazy and cowardly path, because it would do nothing to improve the situation for Indonesian workers or the environment since Apple consumes a tiny fraction of the tin mined there. We chose the second path, which is to stay engaged and try to drive a collective solution.

We spearheaded the creation of an Indonesian Tin Working Group with other technology companies. Apple is pushing to find and implement a system that holds smelters accountable so we can influence artisanal mining in Indonesia. It could be an approach such as “bagging and tagging” legally mined material, which has been successful over time in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We are looking to drive similar results in Indonesia, which is the right thing to do.

Panorama also made claims about our commitment to working conditions in our factories. We know of no other company doing as much as Apple does to ensure fair and safe working conditions, to discover and investigate problems, to fix and follow through when issues arise, and to provide transparency into the operations of our suppliers.

I want you to know that more than 1400 of your Apple coworkers are stationed in China to manage our manufacturing operations. They are in the factories constantly — talented engineers and managers who are also compassionate people, trained to speak up when they see safety risks or mistreatment. We also have a team of experts dedicated solely to driving compliance with our Supplier Code of Conduct across our vast supply chain.

In 2014 alone, our Supplier Responsibility team completed 630 comprehensive, in-person audits deep into our supply chain. These audits include face-to-face interviews with workers, away from their managers, in their native language. Sometimes critics point to the discovery of problems as evidence that the process isn’t working. The reality is that we find violations in every audit we have ever performed, no matter how sophisticated the company we’re auditing. We find problems, we drive improvement, and then we raise the bar.

Panorama’s report implied that Apple isn’t improving working conditions. Let me tell you, nothing could be further from the truth. Here are just a few examples:

Several years ago, the vast majority of workers in our supply chain worked in excess of 60 hours, and 70+ hour workweeks were typical. After years of slow progress and industry excuses, Apple decided to attack the problem by tracking the weekly hours of over one million workers, driving corrective actions with our suppliers and publishing the results on our website monthly — something no other company had ever done. It takes substantial effort, and we have to weed out false reporting, but it’s working. This year, our suppliers have achieved an average of 93% compliance with our 60-hour limit. We can still do better. And we will.

Our auditors were the first to identify and crack down on a ring of unscrupulous labor brokers who were holding workers’ passports and forcing them to pay exorbitant fees. To date, we have helped workers recoup $20 million in excessive payments like these.

We’ve gone far beyond auditing and corrective actions by creating educational programs for workers in the same facilities where they make our products. More than 750,000 people have taken advantage of these college-level courses and enrichment programs, and the feedback we get from students is inspiring.

I will not dive into every issue raised by Panorama in this note, but you can rest assured that we take all allegations seriously, and we investigate every claim. We know there are a lot of issues out there, and our work is never done. We will not rest until every person in our supply chain is treated with the respect and dignity they deserve.

If you’d like to learn more about our Supplier Responsibility program, I encourage you and our customers to visit our website at apple.com/supplierresponsibility.

Thanks for your time and your support.

Jeff

 

题图来自:TheVerge

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